Throughout his life, Philip II of Spain worked to create a court and a ruling style that was distinctly separate from that of his father, Charles V. Through the use of art, literature, and numerous letters that Philip wrote during his reign as king, it is clear that Philip did achieve his goal. He used a number of politically savvy tactics, including a tremendously high level of involvement in the running of his kingdom to stay informed about what was happening. He also led a rather lavish lifestyle, building El Escorial as both a site of religious devotion and political power. Finally, Philip II  used his religious nature, documented in portraits and throughout El Escorial, to influence the nature of his reign. Overall, Philip II was a highly effective monarch who clearly understood how to use tools such as art and literature in order to gain power and control in his kingdom and beyond.

One Response to “Conclusions”

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